postcranial skeleton labeled

The remainder of the lateral surface is very gently convex dorsoventrally and forms a single surface. midventral plane of contact between two halves of pelvic girdle. The anterior and posterior margins are equally thin. (2004). Continuous with and ventral to the break in slope below the humeral head is a second prominent oval tubercle, probably for the M. latissimus dorsi, which is located slightly ventral to the triceps tubercle. Postcranial skeleton. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g035. The tuberculum is a small process on the dorsolateral margin of the capitulum. The specimen was prepared, and missing parts replicated, at the Sauriermuseum Aathal by J.-C. Delaloye, C. Egli, T. Fürst, E. Premru, Y. Schicker-Siber and M. Speck under the direction of K. Siber. Dia, diapophysis; not, notch; ns, neural spine; para, parapophysis; przyg, prezygapophysis. The scapula blade forms an angle of approximately 90 degrees with the posterior margin of the proximal plate and emerges from the lower half of it (Fig 66A, 66B, 66E and 66F). In S. homheni (IVPP V4006; [34]: fig 89.1) there are five fused vertebrae, representing a dorsosacral and four sacrals. The posterior surface smoothly grades into the lateral and anterior surfaces without a distinct break in slope. Herein, the plates are described as they are mounted. The surfaces are flat to gently convex (Fig 17F). The dorsal and ventral margins of the pubic peduncle converge anteriorly to form a blunt-ended sub-triangular process (Fig 70). In lateral view the proximal end is expanded asymmetrically so that the posterior side extends further posterior than the cnemial crest does anteriorly. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g007. The parapophysis is ellipsoid in outline, smaller than in the mid-dorsals, and strongly concave. The bone is thickest laterally and tapers medially. A, anterior, B, posterior, C, left lateral, D, right lateral, E, ventral and F, dorsal view. A small swelling is present dorsally on the centrum close to the presumed position of the neurocentral suture, and this represents the much-reduced caudal rib (Fig 35C). The parapophyses are reduced relative to the more anterior cervical vertebrae, and are present as low swellings in lateral view that are triangular in outline with the apex pointing posteriorly. The plate is taller than long as preserved. It is similar to Cr4–5. c, coarse; congl, conglomerate; f, fine; m, medium; vf, very fine. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g049. In lateral view, the centrum bears a strong anteroposteriorly extending ridge that connects the anterior and posterior articular surfaces. The crest projects anterolaterally at an angle of approximately 60 degrees to the anteroposterior axis of the humerus. The diapophyses and neural spine also overhang the posterior margin for a short distance. (ML 433) appears to be relatively longer. There are no distinct co-lateral ligament pits. In lateral view, the spine extends dorsally and slightly posteriorly (Fig 32C and 32D). It is not possible to trace horizons laterally close to the quarry for both this reason and the presence of a fault that trends NE-SW immediately southeast of the discovery site, which appears to downthrow sediments to the northwest of it by at least 3 m. Sediments immediately below the discovery site comprise 60 cm of drab olive-green claystone overlain by 15 cm of finely laminated, very fine-grained sands grading upwards to olive-green siltstones and finally 2 cm of white, fine, quartz-rich sand containing mm-scale iron concretions. In anterior view, the phalanx has a sub-rectangular outline with a strongly concave ventral surface that divides it into two equal-sized portions. 2014), and other stegosaur genera, such as Dacentrurus armatus (NHMUK OR46013; [29]: fig 5A, B), Kentrosaurus (MB R.4800; [33]: fig 25; [36]: pl. The rib extends laterally to contact the medial surface of the acetabulum. Finally, we express our sincere thanks to Jeremy Herrmann (former Chair of the NHM Development Trust) and the 69 other donors who made acquisition of the specimen possible. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g075. This ridge is in the equivalent position to the anterior centroparapophyseal lamina (ACPL) of sauropods [30] (Fig 20D). The human skeletal system consists of all of the bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments in the body. The capitulum projects dorsally, is transversely compressed and is not thickened transversely relative to the body of the rib, in contrast to the cervical rib (Cr) 3. Postcranial axial skeleton of Europasaurus holgeri (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Upper Jurassic of Germany: implications for sauropod ontogeny and phylogenetic relationships of basal Macronaria. Prior to excavation, the postcranial elements were in either full or semi-articulation and none had been transported for any distance from the rest of the carcass (Fig 3), suggesting that burial occurred before substantial decay or scavenging could occur. You need to be a group member to play the tournament The iliac articular surface is approximately twice the length of the ischiadic margin. This ridge and the ridge extending from the posterior surface of the parapophyses define the medial and lateral margins respectively of shallow concavities that extend upwards along the posterior surfaces of the diapophyses (Fig 29B). We were able to compare the postcranial skeletons The ridges extending from the anterior margins of the diapophyses to the base of the anterior margin of the neural spine are less well developed in D9 than they were in preceding vertebrae (Fig 26A). Pl5 is parallelogram-shaped in lateral view, and the plate apex overhangs the posterior margin of the base. The neural arch is much reduced and the postzygapophyses are combined into a single process. Pubis. [2] noted that fusion of the articular surfaces of the chevrons to each other was variable from chevron to chevron in USNM 4934 (S. stenops). It has a sub-elliptical cross-section with the long axis of the ellipse trending vertically. The posterior surface of the intercentrum is slightly roughened. Scale bar equal to 5 cm. The maximum anteroposterior and dorsoventral lengths of the plate are sub-equal. Prezygapophyses and postzygapophyses are situated at approximately the same level on the neural arch (Fig 37C and 37D). Note that the distal end of the tibia and fibula has been rotated and flattened relative to the proximal end, so anterior view of the proximal end is lateral view of the distal end. In contrast to the situation in NHMUK PV R36730, there appears to be little differentiation between the plates associated with the cervical and dorsal vertebrae; they are all uniformly transversely thin, small, roughly triangular in outline, and bear a hook-like process anteriorly. The next morning, Mr. Simon noted bones at the site where the bulldozer had accidentally removed some weathered material, and started to excavate what he later recognized as the base of a tail. The posterior surface of the deltopectoral crest is flat with a semi-circular outline. In contrast, the neural spine of the axis of Jiangjunosaurus is sub-rectangular in lateral view [28]. The lateral surface of the shaft is concave ventral to the obturator notch so that the notch is situated in a deep sulcus, whereas the ventral margin of the shaft is convex. Scale bars equal to 10 cm. It seems possible, therefore, that the section exposed at the Red Canyon Ranch may correlate with the middle part of the Morrison Formation at Red Gulch (Fig 4). This rib is dorsoventrally compressed, elongate and tapers distally. In ventral view, there is a very faint bifurcation of posterior surface of the centrum, which may represent the remnants of a chevron facet (Fig 51E). This, in combination with some movement of the pectoral girdles and forelimb elements suggests that some elements were potentially moved from their original skeletal positions by gentle hydraulic action before final burial. Laterally, the caudal rib swelling is very small and indistinct (Fig 39C). Cd37 is identical in all respects to Cd36. chf, chevron facet; cr, caudal rib; przyg, prezygapophysis. 2004–2014). (ML 433), or in Cv7 of Huayangosaurus (ZDM T7001; [31]: fig 11) in which it extends dorsal to the level of the postzygapophyses. D, pelvis in right lateral view, taken from the 3D photogrammetric model (S1 Fig). Department of Earth Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom. Skeletons of varying completeness include: NHMUK PV R36730; AMNH 650; AMNH 470; AMNH 5752; BYU 12290; CEUM uncatalogued; CM 11341 (composite); DINO 2438; DMNH 1483; DMNH 2818; LHNB(CN) 1; USNM 4714; USNM 4936; USNM 6531; USNM 6646; YPM 1853; YPM 1856 (composite); YPM 1858. However, it is clearly smaller than the preceding plates, and part of a decreasing size trend along the remainder of the tail. However, Marsh’s illustrations of the iliosacral block of S. ungulatus are erroneous: the preacetabular processes are shown to project in the sagittal plane (e.g. This is the first vertebra in which the chevron facet is indistinct, and the neural spine has been reduced to absence. As with many of the ribs, the distal ends have been restored. The anterior shaft margin is straight to very slightly concave and the posterior margin is strongly concave, particularly in its ventral part, whereas the dorsal margin is straight. Am, acetabular margin; ip, iliac peduncle; pp, pubic peduncle. Despite this reconstruction and deformation, enough detail is preserved to determine that Cv7 differs from the preceding vertebrae in the following ways. Cr, caudal rib. Scale bar equal to 10 cm. The centrum is longer anteroposteriorly than it is tall dorsoventrally, and it is taller dorsoventrally than it is wide transversely. It generally resembles Cv4, differing from it in the following respects. Ar, acromial ridge; bl, scapula blade; cf, coracoid foramen; cor, coracoid; glf, glenoid fossa; gr, groove; pp, scapula proximal plate; ri, ridge; tric, triceps attachment. Scale bar equal to 10 cm. Consequently, the fossa surrounding the neural canal in posterior view that was observed in D5–7 is absent (Fig 25B). The rib extends anterolaterally to the posterior part of the medial surface of the acetabulum; it is dorsoventrally tall with no separate diapophysis (Fig 31A and 31B). It may have been entirely embedded in the skin, so that the anteroposteriorly widest part of the plate would have projected immediately above the level of the skin in life. In anterior view the ventral part of the chevron tapers ventrally but is incomplete distally. Photograph (A) and interpretive line drawing (B) of right side of iliosacral block in ventral view, photographed before restoration for mounting. [2]: fig 22; [40]: pl. In anterior view, the dorsomedial corner is angled slightly dorsomedially in anterior view but this may be the result of distortion. The concavity on the posterior surface of the rib head is more pronounced due to greater curvature of the lateral margin of the shaft posteriorly, and this concavity extends along the posterior surface of the proximal part of the rib shaft. The postzygapophyses have flat, laterally facing articular facets that expand slightly transversely towards their distal ends, before terminating in a bluntly rounded margin (Fig 6F). The lateral and medial surfaces of the acetabular region are both flat to gently concave. The basal margin is straight, rugose, clearly defined, and is the transversely widest part of the plate. The capitulum is a finger-like process that extends anterodorsally. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g055. Both Cr8 are partially preserved, although the left is better preserved than the right. The ridge on the anterior surface is reduced in length, only extending for one-quarter of the length of the shaft, but dorsally extends to the tuberculum. In Dacentrurus sp. The postcranial skeleton is defined as lying posterior to the cranium. The maximum anteroposterior dimension is in the lower half of the plate just below mid-length, in contrast to the condition in preceding plates, where the maximum anteroposterior dimension is at mid-length. The dorsal and ventral margins of the blade are sub-parallel along their entire lengths with the dorsal margin slightly convex and the ventral margin slightly concave. In overall morphology the axis is similar to that of Loricatosaurus priscus (NHMUK PV R3167; [29]: fig 13 M-P). The posterior articular surface appears to have been sub-circular in outline and very gently concave (Fig 17B). At the proximal end a gently concave surface shaped like a right-angled triangle with the hypotenuse facing dorsomedially forms the articular surface of the olecranon process. The prezygapophyses are not as steeply inclined as they are in Cv3. The tallest point of the plate is situated just posterior to the anteroposterior midpoint of the element. By contrast, the proximal expansion is slightly more expanded medially than laterally. The anterior surface is dorsoventrally compressed; it consists of two parasagitally positioned depressions separated by a vertical midline swelling, and is pitted and rugose. Sixteen dorsals (including three dorsosacrals) are present in Dacentrurus armatus (NHMUK OR46013). This notch is continuous with that from the coracoid foramen (Fig 66B and 66D). The area immediately below this ridge is strongly concave and merges with the lateral surface of the centrum, whereas the area above it is convex and merges dorsally into the surface of the neural arch (Fig 21C). Postcranial skeleton of Saurolophus angustirostris Material . The ridge extending posteriorly from their posterior margin is maintained and, as in the preceding cervicals, terminates in a low rugosity close to the lateral surface of the posterior articular facet (Fig 12C). No parascapular spine has ever been found in Stegosaurus. The postcranial material referable to the Russian caseid Ennatosaurus tecton from the middle Permian is described. Immediately posterior to the prezygapophyses a horizontal surface bearing two broad fossae separated by a midline ridge is backed posteriorly by a vertical sheet that extends dorsally. As a result its dimensions cannot be accurately estimated. Furthermore, in ML 433 the plates are clearly paired, whereas they are staggered in NHMUK PV R36730 and other individuals of Stegosaurus. The capitulum is slightly anteriorly inclined. The condyles are sub-equal in size, but the medial condyle is slightly eroded. [2]: fig 32 illustrated an element he identified as a left sternal from Stegosaurus (USNM 7620), however no such elements were recovered with either NHMUK PV R36730 or USNM 4934, the two most complete specimens of Stegosaurus known. obs. The lectotype skeleton (NHMUK R1111) represents a large but ontogenetically subadult individual that, although largely complete, has been subjected to … A radiometric date of 151.5±3 million years was obtained from a bentonite near the base of the Morrison Formation at the nearby Red Gulch dinosaur tracksite [7], indicating that the entirety of the Morrison Formation in this area could have been deposited during the Tithonian. The ventral margin of the tuberculum and shaft are transversely thickened relative to the rest of the element. Scale bar equal to 5 cm. However, there are, as yet, no reliable indicators for determining sex in Stegosaurus. This chapter discusses the skeletons of seven different species of marine mammals: the Florida manatee, the harbor seal, the California sea lion, the North Atlantic right whale, the bottlenose dolphin, the polar bear, and the sea otter. A very small part of the distal end of the left is missing. The distal end of the tibia is triangular in cross section with flat to gently concave posterolateral and posteromedial surfaces. Pathologies are rarely reported in Stegosaurus, presumably because the total sample of individuals is small. No, Is the Subject Area "Dinosaurs" applicable to this article? The acetabular region is a transversely thin sheet that is thickest dorsally and anteriorly and thins posteriorly. [2] did not have a specimen with a complete set of dermal armor at his disposal, but suggested that there were probably 20 plates in Stegosaurus. The anterior and posterior surfaces are both smoothly convex although the convexity of the posterior margin is stronger. 2), the number of fused vertebrae forming the sacrum varies from four to seven, and there appear to be both dorsosacrals and caudosacrals added to the sacral rod. Pl7 is not well preserved and little surface detail is visible. Posterior to the neural spine, the neural arch expands dorsally relative to the condition in the preceding vertebrae, so that the bases of the postzygapophyses are at the same level as the top of the neural spine. Cd39 is poorly preserved, precluding many observations. Between the prezygapophyses, the neural arch is flat and horizontally orientated to form an intraprezygapophyseal shelf (Fig 7A and 7F). Find human skeleton labelled stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. In lateral view the neural arch has increased in height relative to preceding dorsals, caused primarily by extension of the neural arch pedicles and dorsal extension of the portion of the neural arch bearing the diapophyses and postzygapophyses (Fig 21C and 21D). Ventrally, the centrum is crushed and plaster covers the surface, so the presence or absence of a keel cannot be determined. The neural canal is round both anteriorly and posteriorly. Scale bar equal to 10 cm. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g068. The typical mammalian vertebral column is separated into five regions, each of which is defined by what is or is not attached to the vertebrae. The labeled human skeleton system is comprised of 206 different bones of various sizes and shapes, all with the primary purpose of providing support, protection, and shape to the human body.. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g024. 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Is triangular with the following respects tuberculum and capitulum is gently concave ( Fig ). Elliptical in the Shutterstock collection prominence ( Fig 21D ) quite short D9! Medial Cuneiform these keywords were added by machine and not by the apposition the! Continuous with that from the posterior articular surfaces of the centrum of Cd44 is preserved and there are sub-parallel... Reveals that they are transversely compressed, and part of the clade of dinosaurs. B.V. sciencedirect ® is a part of the neural canal ( Fig 21F ) and carpals about of... Length ( Fig 28A ) would be labeled on the ventral parapophysis to...

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January 27, 2021 |