italian battleship littorio

[6], The Italian Navy decided that the smaller design was impractical, and that a larger design should be pursued. The class was composed of four ships—Littorio, Vittorio Veneto, Roma, and Impero—but only the first three ships of the class were completed. The largest class of Italian warships, she was basically an upscaled Littorio when it came to hull design. The bomb detonated the magazines, causing a massive explosion that destroyed the ship with heavy casualties. back to all. It is a fast battleship, agile and forceful by the bow 9 x 341 mm In September 1943, Italy capitulated and signed an Armistice with the Allies. Roma — Italian premium Tier VIII battleship.. A Littorio-class battleship.She carried powerful main battery guns for a ship of her size, was protected by reliable side armor, and had good torpedo protection. The ability of the drum to absorb explosive shock correspondingly fell in relation to its size. Built between 1934 and 1942, they were the most modern battleships used by Italy during World War II. [5], Later in 1928, the design staff prepared another ship, with a displacement of 35,000 long tons (36,000 t), armed with six 406 mm (16.0 in) guns and protected against guns of the same caliber. [10] These long-barrel, high-velocity guns were chosen to compensate for the smaller 381 mm shell as compared to the 406 mm gun originally desired. The belt consists of a 70 mm (2.8 in) homogeneous armor outer plate and the 280 mm (11 in) cemented armor belt placed 250 mm (9.8 in) behind the outer plate; the 250 mm gap was filed with a cement foam called "Cellulite" to keep the water out of the gap and assist in de-capping armor piercing shells. Vittorio Veneto displaced 40,517 t (39,877 long tons; 44,662 short tons) and 45,029 t (44,318 long tons; 49,636 short tons), respectively. [43] Germany pressured the Italian Navy to begin the operation, under the impression that they had disabled two of the three battleships assigned to the British Mediterranean Fleet. She was in Taranto harbor during the Battle of Taranto on 11 November, during which she received three torpedo hits, which caused extensive damage requiring five months repairs. Vittorio Veneto took part in the Battle of Cape Spartivento (known as Battle of Cape Teulada to the Italians) on 27 November 1940. Regardless, the Soviet Navy did not use the U.P. [1] France, which was given parity with Italy, also possessed 70,000 tons of capital ship tonnage. [19], The ships' secondary battery consisted of twelve 152 mm (6.0 in) L/55 Ansaldo Model 1934 guns in four triple turrets. During the engagement, she badly damaged the destroyers Havock and Kingston. During the battle, Littorio struck and seriously damaged the destroyers HMS Havock and Kingston with her main guns, nearly destroying Kingston, which managed to limp back to Malta the following morning. [35] On the night of 8–9 January 1941, the Royal Air Force attacked Naples with heavy bombers, but failed to hit the ship. On 5 June, Vittorio Veneto was hit by two large bombs that struck her port side. [53] They were, however, equipped with the Pugliese system, the details of which were revealed through Soviet espionage. [14], Littorio and Vittorio Veneto had a standard crew of 80 officers and 1,750 enlisted men; while serving as a flagship, the crew was increased by a command staff of between 11 and 31 additional officers. Combat was limited to the opposing light forces, and Littorio and Vittorio Veneto did not see action; the British nevertheless broke off Operation Vigorous due to the battleships' presence and heavy air attacks. The ship was laid down in October 1934, launched in July 1937 and commissioned in April 1940. The digital art may be purchased as wall art, home decor, apparel, phone cases, greeting cards, and more. [17], Littorio's design speed was 29 kn (33 mph; 54 km/h) at full-load. The Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 allotted Italy an additional 70,000 long tons (71,000 t) of total capital ship tonnage, which could be used in 1927–1929, while other powers were observing the "holiday" in battleship construction prescribed by the treaty. On 22 March, she participated in the Second Battle of Sirte, as the flagship for an Italian force attempting to destroy a British convoy bound for Malta. From 1934 to 1942, the Italian Navy (the Regia Marina) funded construction of a four-strong class of new battleship known as the Littorio-class consisting of Littorio, Vittorio Veneto, Roma, and Impero. Roma joined the fleet in June 1942, although all three ships remained inactive in La Spezia until June 1943, when all three were damaged in a series of Allied air attacks on the harbor. At least one of these ships would have followed the three 23,000-ton ships once the building holiday expired in 1931. She was delivered to the Italian Navy in Trieste, still incomplete, some six months later on 28 April 1940. [40] Vittorio Veneto, however, emerged from the attack undamaged. Nevertheless, Italia and Vittorio Veneto reached Malta and were interned. The largest and most powerful warships ever built in Italy, the battleships of the Littorio class, were the first “35,000 tonners” to come under the provisions of the Washington Treaty. They could elevate to 45 degrees, permitting a maximum range of 25,740 m (28,150 yd). [34], The keels for Vittorio Veneto and Littorio were laid on the same day, 28 October 1934, at the Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico shipyard in Trieste and the Ansaldo shipyard in Genoa, respectively. The first Italian design, prepared in 1928, called for a 23,000 long tons (23,000 t) ship armed with a main battery of six 381 mm (15.0 in) guns in twin turrets. The two ships were repeatedly torpedoed throughout their careers: Littorio was hit by a torpedo during the attack on Taranto in November 1940 and again in June 1942; Vittorio Veneto was torpedoed during the Battle of Cape Matapan in March 1941 and while escorting a convoy to North Africa in September 1941. The Italians refused to disclose the details of the Pugliese system. Built between 1934 and 1942, they were the most modern battleships used by Italy during World War II. The British follow-up convoy was much better defended and when the Italian fleet sortied on the 27 November to intercept it they were met with a covering force including two British battleships an… The Italians did not disclose the specifications of the Pugliese system and instead used a multiple-torpedo bulkhead system. [48] Roma joined the fleet shortly after the attacks on the two convoys, and joined her sisters for the move to La Spezia. Shortly after being commissioned into the Regia Marina, the Littorio was badly damaged by the British in the raid on Taranto in November 1940. Littorio, Garibaldi Class, Ships - Barrel Set RB Model 1:350 350L29 + The same attack sank her sister Roma (photo elsewhere). Work was not resumed. Littorio underwent the same pattern of machinery trials prior to completion;[35] she was delivered to the fleet on 6 May 1940. The arrival of the Dunkerque-class fast battleships for the French Navy in the 1930s prompted the Italians to counter with their Littorio-class, a group of four warships that marked the last battleships to be completed for the Italian Navy. [36] In September 1943, following the withdrawal of Italy from the war, all three ships and a significant portion of the Italian fleet left port to be interned in Malta. As Impero was not completed, her final displacement is unknown. [10] At 14 kn (26 km/h; 16 mph), the ships' range increased slightly to 4,700 nmi (8,700 km; 5,400 mi). They returned to port without encountering any British forces, however. The guns' rate of fire was one shot every 45 seconds. [14] Changes to the design and a lack of armor plating led to delays in the building schedule, causing a three-month slip in the launch date from the original plan of May 1937. The ship was dry-docked on 11 December, with repairs completed by 11 March 1941. They formed the backbone of the Italian fleet, and conducted several sorties into the Mediterranean to intercept British convoys, though without any notable success. The armor scheme was nothing special, and … [15], The ships' propulsion system consisted of four Belluzzo geared steam turbines powered by eight oil-fired Yarrow boilers. The roof 90–120 mm (3.5–4.7 in) on 10-mm plating. Aircraft facilities were located on the quarterdeck, where it was initially planned to base six La Cierva autogyros. On 17 December, she took part in the First Battle of Sirte. [16], Littorio ran a series of sea trials over a period of two months between 23 October 1939 and 21 December 1939. Littorio took part in several operational sorties, most of which failed to result in any action, the notable exception being the Second Battle of Sirte, where she damaged several British warships. Littorio was renamed Italia in July 1943 after the fall of the Fascist government. During this time, Littorio's bow was modified to lessen vibration and reduce wetness over the bow. Two more had been started in 1938, but only one of them, Roma, was completed before the Italian Armistice in Repairs were completed and on 12 December, both ships were moved from Taranto to La Spezia in response to the Allied landings in North Africa. [40], Repairs to Vittorio Veneto were completed in time for her to join Littorio on attacks on the convoys Vigorous and Harpoon, which had departed Alexandria and Gibraltar to reinforce Malta simultaneously in mid-June. [15], The ships' main battery consisted of nine 381 mm L/50 Ansaldo 1934 guns in three triple turrets, two in a superfiring pair forward and one aft. An evolution of the original larger design proposals for the Littorio class armed with 16 inch guns (M1936/39), which were still being updated after the Littorios' launch as a potential follow-up with improved AA, torpedo protection and machinery as response to future British and French battleship plans. While en route, German bombers laden with Fritz-X radio-guided bombs attacked the formation. [12], The ships of the class varied slightly in dimensions. May 12, 2018 - Italian Navy ships, Vittorio Veneto, Caio Duilio and Giulio Cesare search for the British fleet in Operation Hats, August - September 1940. Due to fuel shortages, she was moved to La Spezia, Italy. During this attack Italia was hit on the starboard side underneath her fore main turrets, while its sister ship, the Italian flagship Roma, was sunk after it was struck by two bombs. [18] The 824.3 kg (1,817 lb) semi-armor piercing shells formed the secondary ammunition of the 381mm/50, which had a 29.51 kg (65.1 lb) bursting charge. The second is the caliber, ... Our first idea was that it was the same as the Littorio class. The main armor deck extends to the bow and stern, where it thinned to 60 mm (2.4 in) over 10 mm (0.39 in) plating and 36 mm (1.4 in) over 8 mm (0.31 in) plating respectively. Vittorio Veneto shot down one aircraft, but the battleship was flooded with some 4,000 t (3,900 long tons; 4,400 short tons) of water, though she got underway after ten minutes and eventually reached Taranto on 29 March. The Italian Navy pushed to modernize and enlarge the existing shipyards in Spain, so that they could handle a vessel as large as the Littorio class. The last two battleships were the first of the true treaty battleships, members of the Littorio class. [51] The project was abandoned after Italy became involved in World War II, and as a result of limited Spanish industrial capacity. Allocated to the United States, she was stricken on 1 June 1948 and scrapped in La Spezia. The Italians promised to provide all necessary technical and material support for the construction of the ships. [10], Two additional ships were laid down four years later. Description . Able to elevate to 32 degrees, they fired a 29.3 kg (65 lb) semi-fixed round out to an effective range of 5,000 m (16,400 ft). The first two ships, Littorio and Vittorio Veneto, were operational by the early months of Italy's participation in World War II. [14] Figures for Roma's speed trials have not been recorded. Littorio was the lead ship of her class of battleship; she served in the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) during World War II.She was named after the Lictor ("Littorio" in Italian), in ancient times the bearer of the Roman fasces, which was adopted as the symbol of Italian Fascism. She was part of the 1938 Naval Expansion Program with Roma. Both countries rejected British proposals to limit new battleship designs to 25,000 long tons (25,000 t) and 305 mm (12.0 in) guns. In service, however, the ships averaged 28 kn (52 km/h; 32 mph). [4] Protection and radius of action were sacrificed for speed and heavy armament, though the Italians did not value range, as they operated primarily in the confined waters of the Mediterranean. [14] The hull space above the citadel was an armored casemate with 70 mm (2.8 in) plating. (1985). The engines were rated at 128,200 shaft horsepower (95,600 kW) and a top speed of 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph). The Vittorio Veneto was the second ship of the Littorio-class battleships from the Regia Marina. [31] The 152-mm secondary battery turrets were protected by 280 mm (11 in) faces, 80–130 mm (3.1–5.1 in) sides, 80 mm (3.1 in) rear, and 105–150 mm (4.1–5.9 in) roof, while their barbettes were 150 mm (5.9 in) above deck and 100 mm (3.9 in) below deck. A 26,500 long tons (26,900 t) design was then prepared, which mounted eight 343 mm guns in twin turrets. Two hit Roma; one passed through the ship and exploded under her keel, and the second hit near the forward magazines. [30][14], The weather deck over the citadel consists of 36 mm (1.4 in) homogeneous armor over 9 mm (0.35 in) plating;[30] the main armor deck varied depending on the space it was protecting. Littorio class. Italian ship BB LIttorio on November 12, 1940, after Taranto attack (P00090.091).jpg 1,567 × 864; 110 KB Littorio-11-November-1940.svg 4,000 × 1,700; 130 KB Vittorio Veneto and Littorio during WW2.jpg 945 × 584; 59 KB She was launched on 15 November 1939, but she was never completed. Trumpeter 1/350 RN Vittorio Veneto Italian Navy Battleship 1940 Plastic Model Kit. Bagnasco, Erminio; de Toro, Augusto (2010). The three active battleships were transferred to Malta before they were to be interned in Alexandria. On 14 July 1939, Ansaldo completed a design proposal for the Soviet Navy, for a ship largely based on the Littorio class, designated U.P. [49], Italia and Vittorio Veneto reached Malta, where they remained until 14 September, when they were transferred to Alexandria. On 14 October 1946, she was moved to La Spezia, paid off on 3 January 1948, and broken up for scrap. Littorio displaced 40,724 metric tons (40,081 long tons; 44,891 short tons) as designed and 45,236 t (44,522 long tons; 49,864 short tons) at full load. Her sister Vittorio Veneto was laid down the same day. Littorio was the second of the class to be launched, about a month after the Vittorio Veneto, and was commissioned 6 May 1940, eight days after her sister. [15] The ships carried 4,140 t (4,070 long tons; 4,560 short tons) of fuel oil, which enabled a maximum range of 4,580 nautical miles (8,480 km; 5,270 mi) at a cruising speed of 16 kn (30 km/h; 18 mph). Vittorio Veneto was launched on 22 July 1937, with Littorio following exactly one month later on 22 August. Roma was built by the CRDA shipyard, starting on 18 September 1938. She was not able to sail again until March. [3] This would have allowed the Italian fleet to keep at least two units operational at any given time. The uppermost level was protected by 255 mm (10.0 in) on the front and sides and 175 mm (6.9 in) rear, all mounted on 25 mm (0.98 in) plating. Certain elements not to scale. One hit Italia in the bow forward the main battery turrets, causing serious damage. She was launched on 9 June 1940 and was completed on 14 June 1942,[10] after which she joined the fleet in La Spezia and replaced Littorio as the fleet flagship. She was assigned to the distant covering force for the convoy M 42, which was bound for North Africa, carrying supplies for Rommel's Afrika Korps. After which she was sent to hunt the British and Free French Mediterranean fleets. 1/700 Italian Battleship Littorio 1941. by Pit-Road . The Battleship Littorio-class-page contains all related products, articles, books, walkarounds and plastic scale modeling projects dedicated to this ship. They were Italy's first modern battleships, and the first 35,000 ton capital ships of any nation to be built under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty. After 1930, the Italian Navy abandoned the smaller designs altogether. Italia and Vittorio Veneto were awarded to the United States and Britain, respectively, as war prizes. While her sister was being repaired, she took over flagship duties and was transferred to Naples. This formed a void which housed an empty drum 3,800 mm (150 in) wide with 6 mm (0.24 in) thick walls; the rest of the void was filled with liquid. Overall, they served predominately in the Mediterranean, making rare Atlantic sorties. 2 main battery turret and two on either side of the rear turret. The torpedo struck her starboard bow, though she returned to port. She was named after the Lictor ("Littorio" in Italian), in ancient times the bearer of the Roman fasces, which was adopted as the symbol of Italian Fascism. She was renamed Italia on the fall of Mussolini later that year, and badly damaged in September by a German radio controlled glider bomb whilst en route to Malta to surrender to the Allies. [8] The 406 mm gun in turn was abandoned in favor of the 381 mm gun because there were no designs for the larger gun, which would delay construction; a 381 mm gun had already been designed for the canceled Francesco Caracciolo class. $44.52 USD $49.46 USD. February 20, 2021 While returning to port, Littorio was hit by a bomb from an American B-24 Liberator heavy bomber; the bomb struck the forward gun turret, though it did minimal damage. Repairs lasted until July. [36] Impero was laid down at the Ansaldo shipyard on 14 May 1938. The barbettes were 350 mm (14 in) above the upper deck and 280 mm (11 in) below deck. Instead, a single catapult was fitted. She briefly engaged British cruisers with her rear main battery turret, without scoring any hits. Littorio and her sister Vittorio Veneto were built in response to the French battleships … Littorio and her sister Vittorio Veneto were built in response to the French battleships Dunkerque and Strasbourg. Italian shell quality control was awful, leading to engagements where British sailors described shells landing hundreds of meters away on either side of the ship. They had a rate of fire of 12 rounds per minute and had a ceiling of approximately 10,800 m (35,400 ft). A 40 mm thick torpedo bulkhead extended inboard from the base of the main belt before curving down to meet the bottom of the hull. [40] Littorio was hit by three bombs on 19 June, a week after her sister was damaged. The system was designed to protect the ship from torpedo warheads up to 350 kg (770 lb). On 21 March, Littorio sortied to attack a British convoy, which led to the Second Battle of Sirte. The standard crew for Roma and Impero was increased by 100 enlisted men. As part of the armistice agreement, Italia was interned at Malta, Alexandria, and finally in the Great Bitter Lake in the Suez Canal, where she remained until 1947. She was transferred to Genoa for repairs, which were not completed before the Armistice that ended Italian participation in the war. The Armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces took place on 8 September, along with the rest of the Italian fleet she was formally surrendered to the Allies on the following day. 15 in Italian battleship Littorio at La Spezia, early summer 1943. The torpedo bulkhead would prevent any splinters or explosive effects from entering the ships' vitals. [13], Littorio was laid down at the Ansaldo shipyards in Genoa on 28 October 1934 to commemorate the Fascist Party's March on Rome in 1922. During the engagement, one of her Ro.43 reconnaissance planes was shot down by a Skua fighter. The design was for a 42,000 t (41,000 long tons; 46,000 short tons) ship armed with nine 406 mm guns in triple turrets. During this action, which saw the destruction of her sister Roma, Italia herself was hit by a Fritz X radio-controlled bomb, causing light damage to her bow. [15] The ships were equipped with three Ro.43 reconnaissance seaplanes or navalized Re.2000 fighters. [14] This was due to two major defects in the design. Littorio was launched on 22 August 1937, during a ceremony attended by many Italian dignitaries. Franco concluded several agreements with the Italian government that would have seen the building of four Littorio-class battleships in Spain. The class's design was considered by the Spanish Navy, but the outbreak of World War II interrupted construction plans. [10] After the entrance of Italy to World War II, the Italian Navy moved the unfinished ship from Genoa to Brindisi, out of fears of French attacks on the vessel. The class was composed of four ships—Littorio, Vittorio Veneto, Roma, and Impero—but only the first three ships of the class were completed. Littorio, Italian, Battleship, 1940-43 Commissioned in May 1940, the Italian battleship Littorio was the lead ship of her class and was renamed Italia in July 1943 following the fall of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini's government. Roma's displacement increased slightly as compared to the other ships, to 40,992 t (40,345 long tons; 45,186 short tons) and 45,485 t (44,767 long tons; 50,139 short tons), respectively. [35] The ships made another unsuccessful sortie to attack another Malta convoy on 29 September. [36], Littorio and Vittorio Veneto were declared operational on 2 August 1940, and were assigned to the 9th Division of the 1st Squadron. RN Roma Wooden deck set 1943 Trumpeter Pontos Model 1:350 35023WD1 + Actions Stash. First among the Littorio battleships were Littorio and Vittorio Veneto laid simultaneously in 1934 and commissioned in 1940. She was renamed Italia after Benito Mussolini's regime collapsed. The Battle that Scuttled the Battleship. Join us … The ship’s main armament consisted of 3 triple turrets with 381 mm guns, 2 turrets superfiring at the front and 1 at the rear. This is an injection-plastic ship model kit. This topic is categorised under: Ships » Battleships » Battleship Littorio-class. The incomplete Impero had meanwhile been seized by the retreating Germans in 1943, who used her as a target, until she was sunk by American bombers on 20 February 1945. [10] While incomplete, Vittorio Veneto went to sea on 23 October 1939 to conduct machinery trials. Was given parity with Italy, also possessed 70,000 tons of capital tonnage! [ 47 ] before returning to port without encountering any British forces of. 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January 27, 2021 |