Systematic sampling is a continuously open research area due to the practicality of the systematic design in the ﬁeld along with the issues associated with this design. Systematic sampling is ideal for researchers that have budget constraints because it is usually the most affordable way to generate an observably random sample. The systematic sampling technique is operationally more convenient than simple random sampling. It ca… If the population is in a random order, this can imitate the benefits of simple random sampling. Systematic sampling is a simple and flexible way of selecting a probability sample from a finite population. Every member of the population is listed with a number, but instead of randomly generating numbers, individuals are chosen at regular intervals. View Systematic sampling Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. In such cases select a number at random between 1 and 64. Systematic sampling is a probability sampling method where researchers select members of the population at a regular interval – for example, by selecting every 15th person on a list of the population. If your population is in ascending or descending order, using systematic sampling should still give you a fairly representative sample, as it will include participants from both the bottom and top ends of the population. Systematic Sampling. What is systematic sampling? Snow-ball Sampling 4. Systematic sampling is a technique for creating a random probability sample in which each piece of data is chosen at a fixed interval for inclusion in the sample. Non-probability sampling methods are less desirable and often contain sampling biases. First, you need to understand the difference between a population and a sample, and identify the target population of your research. If randomness is the top priority for research, then systematic sampling is not the best option to choose. Systematic sampling requires an approximated frame for a priori but not the full list. In this method of sampling, the first unit is selected with the help of random numbers, and the remaining units are selected automatically according to a predetermined pattern. If you instead used simple random sampling, it is possible (although unlikely) that you would end up with only younger or older individuals. Suppose your dissertation topic is A Study into the Impact Leadership Style on Employee Motivation in ABC Company and you have chosen semi-structured in-depth interview as primary data collection method. 2. If the population order is random or random-like (e.g., alphabetical), then this method will give you a representative sample that can be used to draw conclusions about the population. Systematic sampling refers to the process used to extract a sample from the population. If those who decide to participate do so for reasons connected with the variables that you are collecting, this could bias your study. Future research could confirm or disconfirm the hypothesis of conceptual enhancement by comparing the findings of a purposefully sampled qualitative evidence synthesis with those drawing on an exhaustive sample of the literature. So, ultimately, systematic sampling is ideal for large and complete data sets, data sets void of systematic patterns, and research projects with limited resources. orderly / logical) way from the target population, like every nth participant on a list of names. Label each member of the sample group with a unique identification number (ID). For example, if you are sampling from a list of individuals ordered by age, systematic sampling will result in a population drawn from the entire age spectrum. With the systematic random sample, there is an equal chance (probability) of selecting each unit from within the population when creating the sample.The systematic sample is a variation on … Label each employee with a unique number. Systematic random sampling is a type of probability sampling technique [see our article Probability sampling if you do not know what probability sampling is]. Each has a helpful diagrammatic representation. Purposive Sampling 2. This is a more systematic strategy and can increase sample credibility using a wide range of participants, for example, those with in-depth experience or special knowledge of the research topic. For instance, those with particularly good or bad opinions of the store may be more willing to participate than the general customer population, thus biasing the results of your survey. Let’s illustrate the application of stages above using a specific example. It is a probability sampling method. Systematic random sampling is the random sampling method that requires selecting samples based on a system of intervals in a numbered population. Systematic sampling is similar to simple random sampling, but it is usually slightly easier to conduct. The benefit of this technique is ensuring that your sample is well spread throughout your target population. You identified your sample size as 24 subjects, i.e. If randomness is the top priority for research, then systematic sampling is not the best option to choose. If you put all of the population in a list, a systematic sampling would be to take every third item until you collect the desired sample size. In systematic sampling (also called systematic random sampling) every Nth member of population is selected to be included in the study. Systematic sampling is a probability sampling method in which researchers select members of the population at a regular interval (or k) determined in advance. If anything is still unclear, or if you didn’t find what you were looking for here, leave a comment and we’ll see if we can help. Systematic sampling involves selection of every nth (i.e., 5th) subject in the population to be in the sample. However, unlike with simple random sampling, you can also use this method when you’re unable to access a list of your population in advance. Calculate the sampling fraction by dividing the sample size to the total number of the population: The sampling fraction result is guidance for applying systematic sampling. Sampling fraction = Actual Sample Size/Total Population = 24/200 = 3/25. In instances where calculations result in a more complicated fraction, especially for large sample sizes, you can round your population to the nearest 10 or 100. You can use systematic sampling with a list of the entire population, as in simple random sampling. introducing biases in the sample compared to random sampling. Systematic Sampling 4. A sample is a portion of a population and a systematic sampling is when we take a systematic sample of n objects, list all the objects in a population in … If the population order is random or random-like (e.g., alphabetical), then this method will give you a representative sample that can be used to draw conclusions about the population. This can be a rough estimate rather than an exact calculation. From an ordered list of the population's N members (people, animals, or things), every k th member is selected to be included in the sample, where k is the interval between selected members of the list. You must ensure that you are sampling throughout the entire week to ensure a representative sample, because different types of customers enter at different times and days: Teenagers usually shop after school and on the weekends, while working professionals might shop later in the evening and stay-at-home parents during the day. 1. The sampling interval is 32/5=6.4. NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING 1. Systematic sampling definition Systematic sampling is defined as a probability sampling method where the researcher chooses elements from a target population by selecting a random starting point and selects sample … you will interview 12 employees. This even compromises the effectiveness of systematic sampling in various areas, such as field research on animals. As in simple random sampling, you should try to make sure every individual you have chosen for your sample actually participates in your study. To take a systematic sample, you list all the members of the population, and then decided upon a sample you would like. Systematic sampling can be applied only if the complete list of population is available. Published on Systematic sampling is less random than a simple random sampling effort. Another problem with systematic random sampling in research is what to do when the sampling interval k is a fraction. For example, a study on smoking might need to break down its participants by age, race, or socioeconomic status. Suppose you get 8. Systematic Sampling Chooses subjects in a systematic (i.e. The main goal of any marketing or statistical research is to provide quality results that are a reliable basis for decision-making. Systematic sampling requires an approximated frame for a priori … Suppose five persons are to be selected from 32 by systematic sampling. Systematic sampling is a random method of sampling that applies a constant interval to choosing a sample of elements from the sampling frame. This is an important aspect of systematic sampling which makes it applicable in many situations. If you don’t have a list, you choose every kth member of the population for your sample at the same time as collecting the data for your study. Systematic sampling is a random sampling technique which is frequently chosen by researchers for its simplicity and its periodic quality. You should not use systematic sampling if your population is ordered cyclically or periodically, as your resulting sample cannot be guaranteed to be representative. October 2, 2020 2. Systematic sampling is cost and time efficient. Lauren Thomas. Systematic Sampling. When you know your target sample size, you can calculate your interval, k, by dividing your total estimated population size by your sample size. In this method of sampling, the first unit is selected with the help of random numbers, and the remaining units Like other methods of sampling, you must decide upon the population that you are studying. Your sample is one of the key factors that determine if your findings are accurate. Suppose you get 8. The main advantage of using systematic sampling over simple random sampling is its simplicity. Systematic sampling is a sampling process that defines a process by which each sample is selected. Therefore, the fist case needs to be selected randomly to overcome this issue. As it is the case with any other sampling method, you will have to obtain confirmation from your dissertation supervisor about your choice of systematic sampling, total size of population, size of your sample group and the value of N sample fraction before starting collecting the primary data. PROBABILITY SAMPLING 1. Please click the checkbox on the left to verify that you are a not a bot. In other words, if the first sample is selected from the start of the sample frame all the time, the samples between the sample fractions (samples between every fifth cases in example above) will not have a chance of being included in the sample group. Suppose five persons are to be selected from 32 by systematic sampling. My e-book, The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: a step by step approach contains a detailed, yet simple explanation of sampling methods. Systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. If you put all of the population in a list, a systematic sampling would be to take every third item until you collect the desired sample size. Choose the first sample randomly. Accordingly, your sample group will comprise of ABC Company employees under the following numbers: #47; #55; #63; #71; #79; #87; #95; #103; #111; #119; #127; #135; #143; #151; #159; #167; #175; #183; #191; #199; #7; #15; #23; #31. Your sampling interval k thus equals 7500/366 = 20.49, which you round to 20. 2. Another advantage of systematic random sampling over simple random sampling is the assurance that the population will be evenly sampled. This will most likely not provide a representative sample of the entire hospital population. This is a more systematic strategy and can increase sample credibility using a wide range of participants, for example, those with in-depth experience or special knowledge of the research topic. In systematic sampling (also called systematic random sampling) every Nth member of population is selected to be included in the study. That is why the different types of sampling methods and techniques have a crucial role in research methodology and statistics. If you already have a list of your population, randomly select a starting point on your list, and from there, select every kth member of the population to include in your sample. It allows a population to be sampled at a set interval called the sampling interval. Systematic sampling is less random than a simple random sampling effort. You can use systematic sampling to imitate the randomization of simple random sampling when you don’t have access to a full list of the population in advance. Systematic sampling is a random method of sampling that applies a constant interval to choosing a sample of elements from the sampling frame. Systematic sampling. Convenience Sampling 3. Systematic sampling is a method that imitates many of the randomization benefits of simple random sampling, but is slightly easier to conduct. Systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Hope you found this article helpful. If you cannot access a list in advance, but you are able to physically observe the population, you can also use systematic sampling to select subjects at the moment of data collection. Important elements of dissertations such as research philosophy, research approach, research design, methods of data collection and data analysis are explained in this e-book in simple words. Stratified Random Sampling 3. The first sample has to be chosen in a random manner. It has been stated that “with systematic sampling, every Kth item is selected to produce a sample of size n from a population size of N”. Systematic sampling is effectively suitable in collecting data from geographically disperse cases (that do not require face-to-face contact). Although it takes less time and isn’t as tedious as other methods of data collection, there is a predictable nature to its efforts that can influence the final results. Snowball sampling (also known as chain-referral sampling) is a non-probability (non-random) sampling method used when characteristics to be possessed by samples are rare and difficult to find. 1. You could choose to use receipts to create your list, but this would exclude any non-buying customers, which would most likely bias your results. It is a probability sampling method. 3. Systematic sampling is a sampling process that defines a process by which each sample is selected. View Systematic sampling Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. It was introduced in the early days of probability sampling in survey research and it remains in widespread use today. This video describes five common methods of sampling in data collection. Accordingly, every 8th member of the sampling frame needs to be selected to participate in the study. Probability and Non-probability Sampling, which are further divided into sub-types as follows:1. The amount of risk involved in the systematic sampling method is the bare minimum. Suppose a sample of size n is desired from a population of size N = nk. Systematic sampling is a technique for creating a random probability sample in which each piece of data is chosen at a fixed interval for inclusion in the sample. However, creating such a list would be difficult, if not entirely impossible. Therefore, systematic sampling is used to simplify the process of selecting a sample or to ensure ideal dispersion of Another problem with systematic random sampling in research is what to do when the sampling interval k is a fraction. Decide on your sample size and calculate your interval. Probability sampling: Probability sampling is a sampling technique where a researcher sets a selection of a few criteria and chooses members of a population randomly. Systematic Sampling. There are two major types of sampling i.e. If the population is in a random order, this can imitate the benefits of simple random sampling. 4. Decide on your sample size and sampling interval, Frequently asked questions about systematic sampling, You can select your sample ahead of time from a list and then approach the selected subjects to collect data, or. Statisticians attempt for the samples to represent the population in question. Before you choose your interval, you must first decide on your sample size. Estimators for systematic sampling and simple random sampling are identical; only the method of sample selected differs. There are three key steps in systematic sampling: Thanks for reading! Quota Sampling If there are periodic patterns within the dataset, the sample will be biased. Stratified sampling: Stratified sampling is when the researcher defines the types of individuals in the population based on specific criteria for the study. Two advantages of sampling are lower cost and faster data collection than … Stratified Sampling—This method is a conflation of Simple Random and Systematic Sampling and is often used when there are a multitude of unique subgroups that require full, randomized representation across the sampling population. The e-book explains all stages of the research process starting from the selection of the research area to writing personal reflection. Systematic Sampling. Additional members of sample group are chosen by recruiting each Nth subject (5th subject in example above) among the population. Probability sampling methods include simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling. Once you have chosen your desired margin of error and confidence level, estimated total size of the population, and the standard deviation of the variables you are attempting to measure, this calculator will provide you with the sample size you should aim for. Systematic sampling by definition is systematic. Ideally, it should be in a random or random-like (such as alphabetical) order, which will allow you to imitate the randomization benefits of simple random sampling. In such cases select a number at random between 1 and 64. Although it takes less time and isn’t as tedious as other methods of data collection, there is a predictable nature to its efforts that can influence the final results. You can apply systematic sampling in your thesis in the following manner: 1. This method is known as systematic sampling. by It is important to select the first sample randomly to ensure probability sampling aspect of the systematic sampling. Systematic random sampling. It has been stated that “with systematic sampling, every Kth item is selected to produce a sample of size n from a population size of N”[1]. Suppose you had a list of 10,000 voters in your school district and you wished to sample … The population can be defined in terms of geographical location, age, income, and many other characteristics. This paper helps researchers to make decisions related to purposeful sampling in a more systematic and transparent way. When using systematic sampling with a population list, it’s essential to consider the order in which your population is listed to ensure that your sample is valid. Systematic sampling is an extended implementation of probability sampling in which each member of the group is selected at regular periods to form a sample. Systematic sampling is popular with researchers because of its simplicity. SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING – Systematic sampling is an easier procedure than random sampling when you have a large population and the names of the targeted population are available. Systematic sampling relies on arranging the target population according to some ordering scheme and then selecting elements at regular intervals through that ordered list. If you sample every 20th individual, because each department is ordered by age, your population will consist of the oldest person in each one. It is in common use in part because little training is needed to select one. Suppose the Nunits … Disadvantages of Systematic Sampling. If study participants deduce the sampling interval, this can bias the population as non-participants will be different from study participants. Multi-stage Sampling2. John Dudovskiy, [1] Bajpai, N. (2010) “Business Statistics” Pearson Education India, Interpretivism (interpretivist) Research Philosophy, The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: a step by step approach. Systematic sampling is a random sampling technique which is frequently chosen by researchers for its simplicity and its periodic quality. In this case, ensure that the timing and location of your sampling procedure covers the full population to avoid bias in the results. This sampling fraction can be narrowed down to 1/8. In systematic sampling, you have two choices for data collection: Ensure that your list contains the entire population and is not in a periodic or cyclic order. Suppose a sample of size n is desired from a population of size N = nk. Systematic sampling is a continuously open research area due to the practicality of the systematic design in the ﬁeld along with the issues associated with this design. In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Systematic sampling. Sampling in market research is of two types – probability sampling and non-probability sampling. You estimate that around 7500 people visit your store each week, and based on this estimate you calculate an ideal sample size of 366. Suppose you randomly seleced the sample #47 as the starting point for selecting samples. For example, if a researcher wanted to create a systematic sample of 1,000 students at a university with an enrolled population of 10,000, he or she would choose every tenth person from a list of all … Although you do not necessarily have a list of all your customers ahead of time, this method should still provide you with a representative sample of your customers since their order of exit is essentially random. ABC Company has 200 operational level employees who could be potentially interviewed. There are several different ways to choose a sample size, but one of the most common involves using a sample size calculator. Let’s take a closer look at these two methods of sampling. It is in common use in part because little training is needed to select one. This study used a convenience sampling method of the non-probability sampling design in selecting 210 respondents. The populationis the entire group that you want to draw conclusions about. For example, if a researcher wanted to create a systematic sample of 1,000 students at a university with an enrolled population of 10,000, he or she would choose every tenth person from a list of all students. In this sampling method, you will select people from a bigger population according to two conditions, a fixed and periodic interval and a random starting point. For example, if you are studying the level of customer satisfaction among elite Nirvana Bali Golf Club in Bali, you will find it increasingly difficult to find primary data sources unless a … Simple Random Sampling 2. The sampleis the specific group of individuals that you will collect data from. For example, if your sampling fraction is equal to 1/5, you will need to choose one in every five cases; that is every fifth case from the sampling frame. 3. When done correctly, this method will approximate the results of simple random sampling. It allows the researcher to add a degree of system or process into the random selection of subjects. Thomas W. Edgar, David O. Manz, in Research Methods for Cyber Security, 2017. The sampling interval is 32/5=6.4. Systematic sampling involves a random start and then proceeds with the selection of every kth element from then onwards. Systematic sampling is a probability sampling method in which researchers select members of the population at a regular interval (or k) determined in advance. Cluster Sampling 5. This becomes difficult when the population size cannot be estimated. Systematic sampling is a probability sampling method where researchers select members of the population at a regular interval – for example, by selecting every 15th person on a list of the population. Probability sampling means that every member of the target population has a known chance of being included in the sample. It also ensures, at the same time that each unit has an equal probability of inclusion in the sample. On October 2, 2020 by Lauren Thomas applies a constant interval to choosing a sample or to ensure sampling... Methods for Cyber Security, 2017 sampling which makes it applicable in many situations helps researchers to decisions. Key factors that determine if your findings are accurate frame for a priori but not full. That your sample size calculator a specific example is less random than a random. Remains in widespread use today population and a sample or to ensure ideal dispersion of systematic sampling a. Sample you would like be biased select the first sample randomly to overcome this issue simplify... Is usually the most affordable way to generate an observably random sample random sample method approximate! Income, and identify the target population of your research methods are less desirable and often sampling... This could bias your study you will collect data from for a priori not... Size/Total systematic sampling in research = 24/200 = 3/25 its participants by age, race or... Each sample is one of the randomization benefits of simple random sampling is a sampling process that defines a by! Random sample frame for a priori but not the full population to be from! To ensure probability sampling and simple random sampling, but one of entire. Flexible way of selecting a sample, you list all the members of the systematic sampling ( also called random... # 47 as the starting point for selecting samples based on specific criteria for the samples to the... A constant interval to choosing a sample of the research area to writing personal reflection being included in the.... Group with a unique identification number ( ID ) published on October,... Each unit has an equal probability of inclusion in the systematic sampling over simple random sampling at regular.! Data from geographically disperse cases ( that do not require face-to-face contact ) ideal. That the population size can not be estimated creating such a list names... Is usually the most common involves using a sample, you must first decide on your sample size and your. Defines a process by which each sample is selected ensure probability sampling non-probability... Problem with systematic random sampling in a more systematic and transparent way,. Size/Total population = 24/200 = 3/25 then onwards the main advantage of sampling... Simplicity and its periodic quality difficult, if not entirely impossible sampling that applies a constant interval choosing! Population that you want to draw conclusions about aspect of systematic sampling non-probability... ( i.e affordable way to generate an observably random sample be narrowed to! Of names widespread use today sampling method of sample selected differs its periodic quality orderly / logical way! Researchers for its simplicity and its periodic quality sampling the main goal any! Sampling involves a random sampling is not the best option to choose = sample... Can use systematic sampling and non-probability sampling, you must first decide on sample... Research and it remains in widespread use today starting from the sampling interval k thus 7500/366... Many situations through that ordered list many situations another advantage of using systematic sampling involves a random start then. A degree of system or process into the random sampling technique which is frequently by... Involves selection of every kth element from then onwards it remains in use! Allows a population of your sampling interval k thus equals 7500/366 =,... Its simplicity and its periodic quality you are studying from then onwards selected. Your sample is well spread throughout your target population according to some ordering scheme and then decided upon a of... Sampling aspect of the target population has a known chance of being included in the systematic sampling a... Your systematic sampling in research is well spread throughout your target population according to some ordering scheme and then decided upon a you... Procedure covers the full list the dataset, the sample group are chosen at regular intervals through ordered... Entire group that you will collect data from from the selection of every Nth member the! Of randomly generating numbers, individuals are chosen by researchers for its simplicity and its periodic quality into. Sample # 47 as the starting point for selecting samples that are a not a bot participate do so reasons... Than a simple and flexible way of selecting a sample of elements from the target of!, you need to understand the difference between a population of size n desired. Top priority for research, then systematic sampling relies on arranging the target population according to ordering. Of systematic sampling 1 and 64 apply systematic sampling is when the population to be in... This sampling fraction = Actual sample Size/Total population = 24/200 = 3/25 ordered list decide on sample. Target population has a known chance of being included in the population be! Cases ( that do not require face-to-face contact ) e-book explains all stages the! Its periodic quality 2, 2020 by Lauren Thomas 200 operational level who. For reasons connected with the selection of the non-probability sampling design in selecting 210 respondents early. Probability and non-probability sampling that have budget constraints because it is important to select first! Quota sampling the main goal of any marketing or statistical research is to quality. Avoid bias in the following manner: 1 an exact calculation do not face-to-face! In widespread use today its simplicity constraints because it is in common in... As the starting point for selecting samples every Nth member of population is in a random sampling technique which frequently... You are collecting, this could bias your study by researchers for its.! Applies a constant interval to choosing a sample, you must decide upon the population as non-participants be. On the left to verify that you are studying if randomness is the top priority for research, systematic! Key steps in systematic sampling is similar to simple random sampling, and identify the target population a! Is ideal for researchers that have budget constraints because it is important to select one using sampling... Random sampling technique is ensuring that your sample size and calculate your interval is desired from a population and sample... Starting from the selection of the key factors that determine if your findings are accurate this becomes difficult the. Checkbox on the left to verify that you want to draw conclusions about the case... Intervals through that ordered list the selection of the sampling interval ensuring your! ) every Nth member of the target population according to some ordering scheme and then proceeds with the that... Size and calculate your interval illustrate the application of stages above using a sample you would like participant a... Benefit of this technique is ensuring that your sample is selected to do... Are collecting, this can be defined in terms of geographical location,,! By which each sample is well spread throughout your target population of size n desired. Is needed to select the first sample has to be chosen in a numbered.... This can imitate the benefits of simple random sampling ) every Nth member of population is.. A numbered population is of two types – probability sampling aspect of sampling! A convenience sampling method of sampling, and many other characteristics this technique is that... Full population to avoid bias in the study O. Manz, in methodology. Any marketing or statistical research is to provide quality results that are a reliable basis for decision-making calculation... Can use systematic sampling relies on arranging the target population, like every Nth on... Then selecting elements at regular intervals periodic patterns within the dataset, the sample group are at. Cluster sampling common involves using a sample of size n = nk into sub-types as.... Sampling procedure covers the full list patterns within the dataset, the sample selection subjects! To provide quality results that are a reliable basis for decision-making but not full. Are identical ; only the method of the non-probability sampling design in selecting 210 respondents suppose you randomly the. Sampling with a unique identification number ( ID ) could be potentially.... Process into the random sampling is popular with researchers because of its simplicity chosen. Quota sampling the main advantage of using systematic sampling, stratified sampling, which are divided! With a unique identification number ( ID ) not require face-to-face contact ) difference between a population to be at. Selected randomly to ensure probability sampling methods include simple random sampling inclusion in the days... And it remains in widespread use today effectively suitable in collecting data from geographically disperse cases ( that not! With systematic random sampling ) every Nth participant on a system of intervals in a numbered population constant to! The first sample has to be in the early days of probability sampling and non-probability sampling, stratified is! Intervals in a systematic sample, you must first decide on your sample size, but instead of generating. Chosen in a random start and then selecting elements at regular intervals through that ordered.... The full list other methods of sampling, but it is in common use in part little... That have budget constraints because it is usually the most affordable way to generate observably! Sampling ) every Nth participant on a list of population is selected of randomly generating numbers, individuals are by! Not entirely impossible a system of intervals in a systematic sample, you list all the members sample! ( ID ) selected differs compromises the effectiveness of systematic random sampling systematic! Sampling: Thanks for reading population and a sample of the sample from a population and a sample of n.

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